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Albany Movement
Part of the Civil Rights Movement
Date1961–1962
LocationAlbany, Georgia in Dougherty County and adjacent counties – BakerLeeMitchell County, GeorgiaSumter, and Terrell
Caused byRacial segregationDesegregation order from Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Parties to the civil conflict
Albany Movement (coalition)Ministerial AllianceFederation of Women’s ClubsNegro Voters LeagueNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)NAACP Youth CouncilStudent Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)Albany Board of City CommissionersCity Manager of AlbanyAlbany Police DepartmentAlbany State College
Lead figures
SCLC membersMartin Luther King Jr.SNCC membersCharles SherrodCordell ReagonJ. Charles JonesCity of AlbanyAsa Kelley, Albany Mayor and Chairman of City CommissionersSteve Roos, City Manager of AlbanyLaurie Pritchett, Albany Chief of Police
showvteCivil rights movement
showvteCivil Rights Movement in Georgia

The Albany Movement was a desegregation and voters’ rights coalition formed in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961. This movement was founded by local black leaders and ministers, as well as members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).[1] This group has been assisted by Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). This was meant to draw attention to the brutally enforced racial segregation practices in Southwest Georgia. However, many leaders in SNCC were fundamentally opposed to King and the SCLC’s involvement. They felt that a more democratic approach aimed at long-term solutions was preferable for the area other than King’s tendency towards short-term, authoritatively-run organizing.[2]

Although the Albany Movement is deemed by some as a failure due to its unsuccessful attempt at desegregating public spaces in Southwest Georgia, those most directly involved in the Movement tend to disagree. People involved in this movement labeled it as a beneficial lesson in strategy and tactics for the leaders of the civil rights movement and a key component to the movement’s future successes in desegregation and policy changes in other areas of the Deep South.[2]

Contents

Campaign[edit]

Initially the established African-American leadership in Albany was resistant to the activities of the incoming SNCC activists. C. W. King, an African-American real estate agent in Albany, was the SNCC agents’ main initial contact. H. C. Boyd, the preacher at Shiloh Baptist in Albany allowed Sherrod to use part of his church to recruit people for meetings on nonviolence.[3] For decades, the situation in segregated Albany had been insufferable for its black inhabitants, who made up 40% of the town’s population.[1] At the time of the Albany Movement’s formation, sexual assaults against female students of all-black Albany State College by white men remained virtually ignored by law enforcement officials. Local news stations such as WALB and newspapers such as The Albany Herald refused to truthfully report on the abuse suffered by the Movement workers at the hands of local white people, even referring to blacks as “niggers [and] nigras” on air and in print.[4][5]

Thomas Chatmon, the head of the local Youth Council of the NAACP, initially was highly opposed to Sherrod and Reagon’s activism. As a result of this some members of the African-American Criterion Club in Albany considered driving Sherrod and Reagon out of town, but they did not take this action.[6]

On November 1, 1961, at the urging and with full support of Reagon and Sherrod, local black Albany students tested the Federal orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) which ruled that “no bus facility, bus, or driver could deny access to its facilities based on race”.[7] The students obeyed local authorities and peacefully left the station after having been denied access to the white waiting room and threatened with arrest for having attempted to desegregate it. However, they immediately filed a complaint with the ICC for the bus terminal’s refusal to comply with the ruling. In response to this, Albany Mayor Asa Kelley, the city commission, and Laurie Pritchett,police chief, formulated a plan to arrest anyone who tried to press for desegregation on charges of disturbing the peace.[8]

On November 22, 1961, the Trailways terminal was once again tested for compliance, this time by a group of youth activists from both the NAACP and SNCC. The students were arrested; in an attempt to bring more attention to their pursuit of desegregation of public spaces and “demand[s] for justice”,[7] the two SNCC volunteers chose to remain in jail rather than post bail. In protest of the arrests, more than 100 students from Albany State College marched from their campus to the courthouse. The first mass meeting of the Albany Movement took place soon after at Mt. Zion Baptist Church.[7]

At the same time, C. W. King’s son, C. B. King, a lawyer, was pushing the case of Charles Ware from nearby Baker County, Georgia against Sheriff L. Warren Johnson of that county for shooting him multiple times while in police custody. These developing conditions where the limits of segregation and oppression of African Americans were being tested led to a meeting at the home of Slater King, another son of C. W. King, including representatives of eight organizations. Besides local officers of the NAACP and SNCC, the meeting included Albany’s African-American Ministerial Alliance, as well as the city’s African-American Federated Women’s Clubs. Most of the people at this meeting wanted to try for negotiation more than direct action. They formed the Albany Movement to coordinate their leadership, with William G. Anderson made president on the recommendation of Slater King, who was made vice president. The incorporation documents were largely the work of C. B. King.[9]

The Albany police chief, Laurie Pritchett, carefully studied the movement’s strategy and developed a strategy he hoped could subvert it. He used mass arrests but avoided violent incidents that might backfire by attracting national publicity. He used non-violence against non-violence to good effect, thwarting King’s “direct action” strategy. Pritchett arranged to disperse the prisoners to county jails all over southwest Georgia to prevent his jail from filling up. The Birmingham Post-Herald stated: “The manner in which Albany’s chief of police has enforced the law and maintained order has won the admiration of… thousands.”[10]

In 1963, after Sheriff Johnson was acquitted in his federal trial in the Ware case, people connected with the Albany Movement staged a protest against one of the stores of one of the jurors. This led to charges of jury tampering being brought.[11]

Dr. King’s involvement[edit]

Prior to the movement, Martin Luther King and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference had been criticized by the SNCC, who felt he had not fully supported the Freedom Rides. Some SNCC activists had even given King the derisive nickname “De Lawd” for maintaining a safe distance from challenges to the Jim Crow laws.[12] When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he wasn’t planning on staying for more than a couple days until counsel[13], but the following day he was swept up in a mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators. He declined bail until the city made concessions, then after leaving town stating, “Those agreements were dishonored and violated by the city”.[13]

King returned in July 1962, and was sentenced to either forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine; he chose jail. Three days into his sentence, Chief Pritchett discreetly arranged for King’s fine to be paid and ordered his release. “We had witnessed persons being kicked off lunch counter stools during the sit-ins, ejected from churches during the kneel-ins, and thrown into jail during the Freedom Rides. But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail.”[13] During this time, prominent evangelist Billy Graham, a close friend of King’s who privately advised the SCLC,[14] bailed King out of jail.[15]

After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. During one demonstration, black youth hurled children’s toys and paper balls at Albany police. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a “Day of Penance” to promote non-violence and maintain the moral high ground. Later in July, King was again arrested and held for two weeks. Following his release, King left town. [16]

Legacy[edit]

Historian Howard Zinn, who played a role in the Albany movement, contested this interpretation in chapter 4 of his autobiography, You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving Train (Beacon Press, 1994; new edition 2002): “That always seemed to me a superficial assessment, a mistake often made in evaluating protest movements. Social movements may have many ‘defeats’—failing to achieve objectives in the short run—but in the course of the struggle the strength of the old order begins to erode, the minds of people begin to change; the protesters are momentarily defeated but not crushed, and have been lifted, heartened, by their ability to fight back” (p. 54).

Local activism continued even as national attention shifted to other issues. That fall an African American came close to being elected to city council. The following spring, the city struck all the segregation ordinances from its books. According to Charles Sherrod, “I can’t help how Dr. King might have felt, or … any of the rest of them in SCLC, NAACP, CORE, any of the groups, but as far as we were concerned, things moved on. We didn’t skip one beat.” In 1976, he was elected a city commissioner.

King later said about the setbacks of the Albany Movement:

The mistake I made there was to protest against segregation generally rather than against a single and distinct facet of it. Our protest was so vague that we got nothing, and the people were left very depressed and in despair. It would have been much better to have concentrated upon integrating the buses or the lunch counters. One victory of this kind would have been symbolic, would have galvanized support and boosted morale…. When we planned our strategy for Birmingham months later, we spent many hours assessing Albany and trying to learn from its errors. Our appraisals not only helped to make our subsequent tactics more effective, but revealed that Albany was far from an unqualified failure.[17]

Charles Sherrod had taken on the repressive forces in Southwest Georgia.[18] Sherrod had taken it upon himself to organize a rally with African Americans and students of the Albany State College in Albany, Georgia.[18] He failed in his attempts to bypass the older black leaders of the NAACP and remove the SNCC organizers at the university[18] despite the support he had gained from Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph David Abernathy.

Although the rallies themselves had failed, the Albany Movement provided insight on the media and its relation with white supremacists. The Albany police chief, Laurie Pritchett had reported to the media that he had defeated nonviolent actions with nonviolence and in return the press provided Pritchett with details of what was planned and who the targets were during the Albany Movement, which then caused great distrust among the students and the press.[19] Although publicity was needed, the distrust everyone who was involved in the rallies felt towards the media could not go unheard. Journalists and the media were banned from mass meetings and conferences.[19]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b Curry, Constance (2002). Deep in Our Hearts: Nine White Women in the Freedom Movement. University of Georgia Press. pp. 141–142.
  2. Jump up to:a b Holsaert, Faith S. (2012). Hands on the Freedom Plow: Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC. University of Illinois Press. p. 88.
  3. ^ Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988), pp. 524–525.
  4. ^ Holsaert, Faith S. (2012). Hands on the Freedom Plow: Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC. University of Illinois Press. p. 98.
  5. ^ Slater King, “The Bloody Battleground of Albany”, Originally published in Freedomways, 1st Quarter, 1964 (article explaining the rise of the Albany movement).
  6. ^ Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 526.
  7. Jump up to:a b c “Albany Movement Formed”SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project and Duke University. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  8. ^ Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 527.
  9. ^ Branch, Parting the Waters, pp. 529–530.
  10. ^ “The Limits of Non-Violence – 1962”Eyes on the Prize, PBS.
  11. ^ Article on Albany movement jury tampering, August 1963.
  12. ^ Martin Luther King’s Style of Leadership BBC
  13. Jump up to:a b c King, Martin Luther. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr. New York: Warner Books, 1998.
  14. ^ Miller, Steven P. (2009). Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-8122-4151-8. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
  15. ^ King Center:Billy Graham Archived 2015-03-15 at the Wayback Machine Accessed May 1, 2015
  16. ^ “popsike.com – FREEDOM IN THE AIR ALBANY GA ’61-2 Documentary LP BLACK HISTORY GUY CARAWAN SNCC – auction details”www.popsike.com. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
  17. ^ The Albany Movement ~ Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr: Chapter 16.
  18. Jump up to:a b c Riches, William Terence Martin, The Civil Rights Movement: Struggle and Resistance, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, p. 67.
  19. Jump up to:a b Riches (2004), p. 68.

Sources[edit]

  • Riches, William Terence Martin, The Civil Rights Movement: Struggle and Resistance, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, pp. 67–68.
  • “You Got To Move” a 1985 documentary about the Highlander Folk School has good footage of the Albany movement, with clips of Charles Sherrod, interviews with Bernice Johnson Reagon, and demonstrators singing freedom songs.

External links[edit]

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Prior to 1954Journey of ReconciliationMurder of Harry and Harriette MooreSweatt v. Painter (1950)McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950)1954–1959Brown v. Board of Education Bolling v. SharpeBriggs v. ElliottDavis v. County School Board of Prince Edward CountyGebhart v. BeltonWhite America, Inc.Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach CompanyEmmett TillMontgomery bus boycott Browder v. GayleTallahassee bus boycottMansfield school desegregation1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom “Give Us the BallotRoyal Ice Cream sit-inLittle Rock Nine National Guard blockadeCivil Rights Act of 1957Kissing CaseBiloxi wade-ins1960–1963New Year’s Day MarchGreensboro sit-insNashville sit-insSit-in movementGreenville EightCivil Rights Act of 1960Ax Handle SaturdayGomillion v. LightfootBoynton v. VirginiaRock Hill sit-insRobert F. Kennedy’s Law Day AddressFreedom Rides attacksGarner v. LouisianaAlbany MovementCambridge MovementUniversity of Chicago sit-insSecond Emancipation ProclamationMeredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot“Segregation now, segregation forever” Stand in the Schoolhouse Door1963 Birmingham campaign Letter from Birmingham JailChildren’s CrusadeBirmingham riot16th Street Baptist Church bombingJohn F. Kennedy’s speech to the nation on Civil RightsDetroit Walk to FreedomMarch on Washington “I Have a Dream”Big SixSt. Augustine movement1964–1968Twenty-fourth AmendmentChester School ProtestsBloody TuesdayFreedom Summer workers’ murdersCivil Rights Act of 19641965 Selma to Montgomery marches “How Long, Not LongVoting Rights Act of 1965Harper v. Virginia Board of ElectionsMarch Against FearWhite House Conference on Civil RightsChicago Freedom Movement/Chicago open housing movementMemphis sanitation strikeKing assassination funeralriotsPoor People’s CampaignCivil Rights Act of 1968 Fair Housing ActGreen v. County School Board of New Kent County
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ActivistsRalph AbernathyVictoria Gray AdamsZev AelonyMathew AhmannMuhammad AliWilliam G. AndersonGwendolyn ArmstrongArnold AronsonElla BakerMarion BarryDaisy BatesHarry BelafonteJames BevelClaude BlackGloria BlackwellRandolph BlackwellUnita BlackwellEzell Blair Jr.Joanne BlandJulian BondJoseph E. BooneWilliam Holmes BordersAmelia BoyntonRaylawni BranchStanley BrancheRuby BridgesAurelia BrowderH. Rap BrownGuy CarawanStokely CarmichaelJohnnie CarrJames ChaneyJ. L. ChestnutColia Lafayette ClarkRamsey ClarkSeptima ClarkXernona ClaytonEldridge CleaverKathleen CleaverCharles E. Cobb Jr.Annie Lee CooperDorothy CottonClaudette ColvinVernon DahmerJonathan DanielsJoseph DeLaineDave DennisAnnie DevinePatricia Stephens DueJoseph EllwangerCharles EversMedgar EversMyrlie Evers-WilliamsChuck FagerJames FarmerWalter FauntroyJames FormanMarie FosterGolden FrinksAndrew GoodmanFred GrayJack GreenbergDick GregoryLawrence GuyotPrathia HallFannie Lou HamerWilliam E. HarbourVincent HardingDorothy HeightLola HendricksAaron HenryOliver HillDonald L. HollowellJames HoodMyles HortonZilphia HortonT. R. M. HowardRuby HurleyJesse JacksonJimmie Lee JacksonRichie Jean JacksonT. J. JemisonEsau JenkinsBarbara Rose JohnsVernon JohnsFrank Minis JohnsonClarence JonesJ. Charles JonesMatthew JonesVernon JordanTom KahnClyde KennardA. D. KingC.B. KingCoretta Scott KingMartin Luther King Jr.Martin Luther King Sr.Bernard LafayetteJames LawsonBernard LeeSanford R. LeighJim LethererStanley LevisonJohn LewisViola LiuzzoZ. Alexander LoobyJoseph LoweryClara LuperMalcolm XMae MalloryVivian MaloneThurgood MarshallBenjamin MaysFranklin McCainCharles McDewRalph McGillFloyd McKissickJoseph McNeilJames MeredithWilliam MingJack MinnisAmzie MooreCecil B. MooreDouglas E. MooreHarriette MooreHarry T. MooreWilliam Lewis MooreIrene MorganBob MosesWilliam MoyerElijah MuhammadDiane NashCharles NeblettEdgar NixonJack O’DellJames OrangeRosa ParksJames PeckCharles PersonHomer PlessyAdam Clayton Powell Jr.Fay Bellamy PowellAl RabyLincoln RagsdaleA. Philip RandolphGeorge RaymondGeorge Raymond Jr.Bernice Johnson ReagonCordell ReagonJames ReebFrederick D. ReeseWalter ReutherGloria RichardsonDavid RichmondBernice RobinsonJo Ann RobinsonBayard RustinBernie SandersMichael SchwernerCleveland SellersCharles SherrodAlexander D. ShimkinFred ShuttlesworthModjeska Monteith SimkinsGlenn E. SmileyA. Maceo SmithKelly Miller SmithMary Louise SmithMaxine SmithRuby Doris Smith-RobinsonCharles Kenzie SteeleHank ThomasDorothy TillmanA. P. TureaudHartman TurnbowAlbert TurnerC. T. VivianWyatt Tee WalkerHollis WatkinsWalter Francis WhiteRoy WilkinsHosea WilliamsKale WilliamsRobert F. WilliamsAndrew YoungWhitney YoungSammy Younge Jr.James Zwerg
InfluencesNonviolence PadayatraSermon on the MountMahatma Gandhi AhimsaSatyagrahaThe Kingdom of God Is Within YouFrederick DouglassW. E. B. Du BoisMary McLeod Bethune
RelatedJim Crow lawsLynching in the United StatesPlessy v. Ferguson Separate but equalBuchanan v. WarleyHocutt v. WilsonSweatt v. PainterHernandez v. TexasHeart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United StatesKatzenbach v. McClungLoving v. VirginiaAfrican-American women in the movementFifth Circuit FourBrown ChapelDexter Avenue Baptist ChurchHolt Street Baptist ChurchEdmund Pettus BridgeMarch on Washington MovementAfrican-American churches attackedList of lynching victims in the United StatesFreedom Songs “Kumbaya“Keep Your Eyes on the Prize”“Oh, Freedom”“This Little Light of Mine”“We Shall Not Be Moved”“We Shall Overcome”Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break SilenceWatts riotsVoter Education Project1960s countercultureEyes on the Prize
HonoringIn popular cultureMartin Luther King Jr. MemorialBirmingham Civil Rights National MonumentFreedom Riders National MonumentCivil Rights MemorialOther King memorials
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Taylor BranchClayborne CarsonJohn DittmerMichael Eric DysonChuck FagerAdam FaircloughDavid GarrowDavid HalberstamVincent HardingSteven F. LawsonDoug McAdamDiane McWhorterCharles M. PayneTimothy TysonAkinyele UmojaMovement photographers

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